During 2016, around 166,000 people in the UK died from the disease, with lung, prostate, breast and bowel cancers accounting for 45% of all Cancer deaths in the UK in 20162. Cancer was the cause of over a quarter (28%) of all deaths in the UK in 2016 and is the most common cause of death by broad disease group2. Around one in two people will develop cancer at some point in their lives and it causes around one in four deaths3. Cancer is largely preventable and there is a significant focus locally on the prevention and early diagnosis of cancer.
It is estimated that more than four in 10 cancer cases could be prevented by lifestyle changes, such as not smoking, cutting back on alcohol, maintaining a healthy body weight, and avoiding excessive sun exposure (Parkin et al 2010). Given that there is an ageing population within Knowsley and cancer is predominantly a disease of ageing it is expected that the number of new cases of cancer each year will increase in the future.
In 2017/18, prevalence of cancer in Knowsley was 2.82%; this was above England (2.73%) and North West 2.83%. Knowsley cancer prevalence increased from 1.24% in 2009/10 to 2.82% in 2017/18. Over the same period, cancer prevalence has increased significantly both nationally and locally, with Knowsley more than doubling (increase of 127.8%), this increase being higher than England (92.9%) and the North West (94.0%)
Cancer incidence is the number or rate (per head of population) of new cases of cancer diagnosed in a given population in a defined time period (in this case a year), this does not include secondary cancers or recurrences. Knowsley CCG area has the 2nd highest incidence all cancers combined (out of 195 CCG areas) in the 2015/17 period.
There were 8,242 new cases of cancer diagnosed in Knowsley between 2009 and 2017 (average of 916 per year). Of these, just under half are cases related to males, (48.5% of total cases). There were 3,994 cancer cases related to males (circa 444 per year). The rate of cancer incidence for males was 761.5 per 100,000 males in 2015-17. The most prevalence Male cancers in Knowsley were prostate cancer (21%) and Lung cancer (18%) in 2015-17, totaling nearly 40% (2 in 5 cases) of all Cancer incidences.
There were 4,248 cancer cases related to females in Knowsley between 2009 and 2017 (circa 472 per year). The rate of cancer incidence for females was 629.3 per 100,000 females in 2015-17. The most prevalence female cancers in Knowsley were Breast cancer and Lung cancer in 2015-17, responsible for 27.7% and 19.0% of all new cases each, totaling 46.7%, nearly half of all cancer incidences in females.
For further reading the cancer JSNA can be found here: Cancer JSNA